Chapter 18 (Tobin & Duschek); Chapter 17 (Audesirk)

     Essay 1. Discuss why RNA is considered by many scientists to have been the basis for
early forms of life.

2. Some RNA molecules have been discovered that can:
	a.	degrade proteins
	b.	duplicate lipid molecules
	c.	act as enzymes
	d.	form primitive cells
	e.	take inorganically made organic molecules and assemble them into protocells

3. The theory that life began from non-living molecules that became able to reproduce
themselves at one time in the distant past is:
	a.	Prebiotic evolution
	b.	Prehistoric evolution
	c.	Prokaryotic
	d.	Spontaneous generation
	e.	a and d

4. As the rock from space joined together and began to cool forming the planet earth over
four billion years ago, the early atmosphere probably had these gases:
	a.	Carbon dioxide, methane, ammonia, nitrogen
	b.	Nitrogen, oxygen, methane, ammonia
	c.	Nitrogen, oxygen, carbon dioxide, methane
	d.	Water vapor, oxygen, nitrogen, methane
	e.	Carbon dioxide, oxygen, water, nitrogen

5. It has been proposed that the first atmosphere of Earth had all the following gasses
	a.	H2
	b.	H2O
	c.	O2
	d.	NH2
	e.	CH4

6. Oxygen has a _____ influence on the formation of complex organic molecules because
	a.	positive; it acts as a coenzyme
	b.	positive; it causes formation of hydrogen bonds
	c.	positive; it increases metabolism
	d.	negative; it prevents photosynthesis
	e.	negative; it disrupts chemical bonds

7. What compounds were used in the experiment by Stanley Miller to demonstrate that organic
molecules, and perhaps the first organisms, developed from molecules known to be present in
the early atmosphere of earth?
	a.	Oxygen, ammonia, hydrogen, and methane
	b.	Ammonia, hydrogen, and carbon dioxide
	c.	Water, oxygen, hydrogen, and methane
	d.	Water, ammonia, hydrogen, and methane
	e.	Water, oxygen, ammonia, and methane

8. What chemicals were produced by Stanley Miller in experiments investigating the origin
of life in his laboratory? These molecules resulted from repetitive heating and cooling
cycles and electric discharges in an atmosphere simulating the early atmosphere of Earth.
	a.	Amino acids, ATP
	b.	Short proteins, nucleotides
	c.	Cells similar to bacteria
	d.	Only choices a and b are correct
	e.	Choices a, b, and c are correct

9. Laboratory research has shown that if a solution containing lipids and proteins is
agitated for a long time, some structures characteristic of organisms are produced. They
are called:
	a.	Amino acids and enzymes
	b.	Adenosine triphosphate
	c.	Cell-like microspheres
	d.	Mitochondria
	e.	Amino acids, enzymes and adenosine triphosphate

10.	Microspheres are nonliving structures that are most similar to:
	a.	Complete cells
	b.	RNA
	c.	Bacteria
	d.	Amino acids
	e.	Cell membranes

11.	Louis Pasteur's experiment illustrated that:
	a. Microbes will grow spontaneously in a nutrient broth that has been sterilized
and sealed.
	b. Only some organisms can form spontaneously in nutrient broth.
	c. Life may have begun by chemical evolution.
	d. Some complex molecules associated with living organisms can be synthesized by
heating and cooling a solution of simple molecules and providing an electric spark.
	e. Microbes will not grow in a nutrient broth that has been sterilized unless they
are allowed to enter by opening the vessel to the air.

12.	The first self-replicating molecules were ______.
	a.	DNA
	b.	RNA
	c.	Ribozymes
	d.	enzymes
	e.	cells

13. The scientist usually given credit for disproving the theory of spontaneous generation
of bacteria was:
	a.	Redi
	b.	Oparin
	c.	Miller
	d.	Pasteur
	e.	Urey

14. If you open a can of chicken noodle soup and immediately examine it microscopically you
will find no microorganisms. If you let the open can sit on the shelf for a few weeks and
then examine it you will find lots of micoorganisms. The origin of these microorganisms is
most likely
	a.	spontaneous generation
	b.	improper sterilization of the soup prior to canning
	c.	prebiotic evolution
	d.	endosymbiotic microspheres
	e.	airborne microorganisms

15. All experiments that stimulate conditions in the early earth's atmosphere assume that
the early atmosphere did NOT contain which gas?
	a.	water vapor
	b.	methane
	c.	oxygen
	d.	hydrogen
	e.	carbon dioxide

16. Before the development of photosynthesis, as ancient cells became crowded a major
competition was probably for:
	a.	organic molecules
	b.	sunlight
	c.	oxygen gas
	d.	water
	e.	enzymes

17.	The many of the oldest known fossils most closely resemble which modern organisms?
	a.	archaea
	b.	protista
	c.	viruses
	d.	fungi
	e.	blue green algae

18. The oldest fossil organisms presently known have been dated at approximately how many
years old?
	a.	4.5 billion
	b.	3.5 billion
	c.	1.7 billion
	d.	less than 1.7 billion
	e.	greater than 4.5 billion

19. If the early earth's atmosphere contained little or no free O2 then where did most of
the 21% O2 in our modern atmosphere come from?
	a.	oxidation of metals
	b.	photosynthesis
	c.	respiration
	d.	the breakdown of carbon dioxide
	e.	the splitting of water vapor by sunlight

20.	The fossil record indicates that the earliest cells lived about:
	a.	1.5 million years ago
	b.	2.5 billion years ago
	c.	3.5 million years ago
	d.	3.5 billion years ago
	e.	6 billion years ago

21.	Eukaryotic cells evolved about _________ years ago.
	a.	4.5 billion
	b.	3.5 billion
	c.	1.4 billion
	d.	600 thousand
	e.	10 thousand

22. ________ may have evolved from aerobic bacteria and _________ may have evolved from
photosynthetic cyanobacteria engulfed by predatory cells and then kept alive within the
predatory host cell.
	a.	Chloroplasts; mitochondria
	b.	Mitochondria; nuclei
	c.	Mitochondria; chloroplasts
	d.	Cell membranes; chloroplasts
	e.	Prokaryotes; eukaryotes

23.	Which is the correct series of events?
	a.	heterotrophic cells  O2  photosynthesis  aerobic metabolism
	b.	heterotrophic cells  aerobic metabolism  photosynthesis  O2
	c.	O2  heterotrophic cells  photosynthesis  aerobic metabolism
	d.	photosynthesis  O2  heterotrophic cells  aerobic metabolism
	e.	heterotrophic cells  photosynthesis  O2  aerobic metabolism

     Essay 24. Describe how the mitochondrion evolved as an organelle according to the
endosymbiont hypothesis.

25.	Which is NOT an attribute of the eukaryotic cell's precursor?
	a.	predatory
	b.	aerobic respiration
	c.	no cell wall
	d.	prokaryotic
	e.	bacterium

26. The organisms originally responsible for putting oxygen in our atmosphere were
	a.	green plants
	b.	fungi
	c.	mosses
	d.	cyanobacteria
	e.	algae

27.	Most of the organelles in eukaryotic cells are believed to have evolved from...
	a.	invaginations in the plasma membrane
	b.	products of the cell's DNA
	c.	endosymbiotic bacteria
	d.	parasites
	e.	the mitochondrion and chloroplasts


a. proposed the idea of prebiotic evolution
b. early Homo sapiens
c. disproved maggots from meat hypothesis
d. disproved broth to microorganisms hypothesis
e. first demonstrated prebiotic evolution in the laboratory

28.	Stanley Miller

29.	Cro Magnon

30.	Francisco Redi

31.	Lewis Pasteur

32.	Alexander Oparin

33.	The endosymbiotic hypothesis accounts for the origin of which cell structure?
	a.	chloroplast
	b.	cell wall
	c.	chromosome
	d.	plasma membrane
	e.	ribosome

34.	The earliest fossils resemble modern:
	a.	protists
	b.	green algae
	c.	eukaryots
	d.	prokaryots
	e.	microspheres

35.	Multicellularity allows organisms to:
	a.	be phothsynthetic
	b.	undergo aerobic respiration
	c.	be big
	d.	be fast
	e.	reproduce more efficiently

36.	The first multicellular eukaryotic fossils were:
	a.	algae
	b.	fungi
	c.	mosses
	d.	chordates
	e.	archaea

37. The fossil record indicates that in the oceans about 600 million years ago a wide
variety of ________ animals had evolved.
	a.	unicellular
	b.	vertebrate
	c.	fish-like
	d.	whale-like
	e.	invertebrate

38.	Probably the biggest advantage to being multicellular was originally...
	a.	increased use of oxygen
	b.	increased metabolism
	c.	increased food intake
	d.	predator avoidance
	e.	ability to photosynthesize

     Essay 1. RNA can make exact copies of itself and it has been shown to sometimes act as
an enzyme for biochemical reactions. The ability to reproduce and to enzymatically catalyze
reactions are important characteristics of cells.

2.	c
3.	e
4.	a
5.	c
6.	e
7.	d
8.	d
9.	c
10.	e
11.	e
12.	c
13.	d
14.	e
15.	c
16.	b
17.	e
18.	b
19.	b
20.	d
21.	c
22.	c
23.	e

24.	No answer in TestBank
25.	b
26.	d
27.	c
28.	e
29.	b
30.	c
31.	d
32.	a
33.	a
34.	d
35.	c
36.	a
37.	e
38.	d