Chapter 3 Tobin & Dushek and Audesirk)

Chapter 3

1.	What are two main common features of organic molecules?

     M/C 2. Which of the following best explains the molecular complexity of living
	a. The large number of different monomers allows the construction of many polymers. 
	b. Each organism has its own unique set of monomers for use in constructing
	c. Condensation reactions can create different polymers because they can use
virtually any molecules in the cell. 
	d. While there are not many macromolecules in cells, each one has many different
	e. A small number of monomers can be assembled into large polymers with many
different sequences. 

     F/B 3. Carbon provides a versatile backbone for macromolecules. With an atomic number
of 6, carbon can form up to __________ different __________ bonds. 

4.	_______________ molecules are synthesized by living organisms.

5. _________________ determine the characteristics and chemical reactivity of organic

6.	Polymers are long chains of ________________ subunits.

7.	Monomer units are linked together to form polymers by a hydrolysis reaction.

8.	Large biological molecules are synthesized by removing...
	a.	carbon
	b.	covalent bonds
	c.	water
	d.	oxygen
	e.	peptides

9. What type of chemical reaction results in the breakdown of organic polymers into their
respective subunits? 
	a.	Condensation
	b.	Oxidation
	c.	Hydrolysis
	d.	Ionization
	e.	Reduction

10.	Which of the following reactions requires the removal of water to form a covalent bond?
	a.	glycogen ® glucose subunits
	b.	dipeptide ® alanine + glycine
	c.	cellulose ® glucose
	d.	glucose + galactose ® lactose
	e.	fat ® fatty acids + glycerol

11. What do carbohydrates, lipids, and proteins have in common? 
	a. Monomers of these organic molecules form polymers by way of condensation
	b. Covalent bonding holds these molecules together. 
	c. Each of these organic molecules has a carbon backbone with various functional
groups attached. 
	d. All are important components of an animal's diet. 
	e. All of the above. 

12.	Which of the following correctly matches an organic polymer with its respective monomers?
	a.	Protein and amino acids
	b.	Carbohydrates and polysaccharides
	c.	Hydrocarbon and monosaccharides
	d.	Lipid and steroids
	e.	DNA and ATP

13. Which of the following best summarizes the relationship between dehydration reactions
and hydrolysis? 
	a.	Dehydration reactions assemble polymers and hydrolysis breaks them down.
	b.	Hydrolysis occurs during the day and dehydration happen at night.
	c.	Dehydration reactions can occur only after hydrolysis.
	d.	Hydrolysis creates monomers and dehydration reactions destroy them.
	e. Dehydration reactions occur only in animals and hydrolysis reactions occur only
           in plants. 

14.	In condensation reactions, the atoms that make up a water molecule are derived from
	a.	oxygen.
	b.	only one of the reactants.
	c.	both of the reactants.
	d.	carbohydrates.
	e.	enzymes.

     F/B 15. Many macromolecules are formed by the connection of monomer units in a
__________ reaction (removal of water); the reverse process occurs via a __________
reaction (addition of water). 

16. The highly branched polysaccharide that stores glucose in the muscle and liver of
animals is _____________________. 

17.	Starch is to glycogen what _________ is to ____________.
	a.	oil; fat
	b.	glucose; chitin
	c.	adenine; DNA
	d.	carbon; protein
	e.	hydrolysis; condensation

18.	The fiber in your diet is really...
	a.	protein
	b.	ATP
	c.	starch
	d.	cartilage
	e.	cellulose

19.	Chitin is an example of a ________.
	a.	polymer
	b.	polysaccharaide
	c.	carbohydrate
	d.	a and b
	e.	all of these

     Essay 20. Think about a Big Mac or a Whopper. What biological molecules are you
eating? What if you got fries with that? 

21.	Where is glycogen stored in vertebrate animals?
	a.	Liver and muscles
	b.	Brain and kidneys
	c.	Heart and bones
	d.	Pancreas and blood
	e.	Liver and heart

22.	An example of a structural polysaccharide is:
	a.	Table sugar
	b.	Chitin
	c.	Starch
	d.	Glucose
	e.	Glycogen

23.	Which of the following provides long-term energy storage for plants?
	a.	Glucose
	b.	Glycogen
	c.	Starch
	d.	Cellulose
	e.	ATP

24.	What are the four major types of macromolecules?

25. Why do cows have the ability to breakdown cellulose into glucose and humans can not
digest cellulose? 

26. What are the two main functions of carbohydrates in a living system? Give an example of

27.	Which type of lipid is most important in biological membranes?
	a.	fats
	b.	steroids
	c.	phospholipids
	d.	oils
	e.	triglycerides

28.	Carbohydrates normally function in animals as energy storage molecules.

     F/B Matching¾Select the macromolecule that best matches the statement. Letters may be
used once, more than once or not at all. 

a. Proteins
b. Carbohydrates
c. Lipids
d. Nucleic Acids

29.	May serve as both energy source and as structural support for cells.

30.	These macromolecules possess large nonpolar regions making them insoluble in water.

31.	This macromolecule is composed of amino acid subunits.

32. This macromolecule is composed of monomer units containing a sugar, a phosphate group,
and a nitrogen-containing base. 

33. A member of this macromolecule group is crucial to the structure and function of the
cell membrane. 

34.	May possess primary, secondary, tertiary and quaternary structure.

35.	This macromolecule contains coded genetic information.

36.	Composed of monosaccharide monomer units.

37.	Which of the following is insoluble in water?
	a.	Olive oil
	b.	DNA
	c.	Sucrose
	d.	Salt
	e.	Amino acids

38.	Cholesterol, testosterone, estrogen and ecdysone are all examples of:
	a.	Fatty acids
	b.	Proteins
	c.	Steroids
	d.	Hormones
	e.	Waxes

39.	How does one account for the nonpolar, hydrophobic nature of fats?
	a.	Fats lack both double and triple bonds.
	b.	The fatty acids are linked to large long-chained alcohols.
	c.	Carboxyl groups (-COOH) are not present in fats.
	d.	Carbon and hydrogen atoms share electrons equally.
	e.	Glycerol is not water soluble.

40. When one gram of each of the following is oxidized, which yields the greatest amount of
	a.	Sucrose
	b.	Glucose
	c.	Glycerol
	d.	Hemoglobin
	e.	Fat

41.	Of what are fats composed?
	a.	Three glycerols and their fatty acids
	b.	Three fatty acids and one glycerol
	c.	One glycogen and two phospholipids
	d.	Two fatty acids and one carboxyl acid
	e.	Three oils and one glycerol

42.	Phospholipids are unusual and important to cell structure because...
	a.	they are part of DNA.
	b.	they contain fatty acids.
	c.	they have a polar and a nonpolar end.
	d.	they are found only in animals.
	e.	they are an important energy carrier molecule.

43.	Fatty acids with more than one carbon-carbon double bond are called ________________.

44.	Phospholipids have hydrophilic ____________ regions and hydrophobic __________ regions.

     Essay 45. Why is it an advantage for animals that migrate long distances to store
energy as lipids rather than carbohydrates? 

     F/B 46. Describe the differences between saturated and unsaturated fatty acids. Which
is most likely to be solid at room temperature? Why? 

47.	Why are sugars soluble in water?

48. Diagram an amino acid and label each of its component parts. How do amino acids differ
from each other? 

     M/C 49. Two classes of organic compounds typically provide energy for living systems.
Representatives of these two classes are
	a.	fats and amino acids.
	b.	amino acids and glycogen.
	c.	amino acids and ribose sugars.
	d.	fats and polysaccharides.
	e.	nucleic acids and phospholipids.

50. You have isolated a liquid from a sample of beans. You add the liquid to a beaker of
water and shake vigorously. After a few minutes, the water and the other liquid separate
into two layers. To which class of biological macromolecules does the unknown
 liquid most likely belong?
	a.	Carbohydrates
	b.	Lipids
	c.	Proteins
	d.	Enzymes
	e.	Nucleic Acids

51. In a biological membrane, the phospholipids are arranged with the fatty acid chains
facing the interior of the membrane. As a result, the interior of the membrane is
	a.	hydrophobic.
	b.	hydrophilic.
	c.	charged.
	d.	polar.
	e.	filled with water.

52.	The group of biological molecules most diverse in function is:
	a.	carbohydrates
	b.	lipids
	c.	proteins
	d.	nucleic acids
	e.	organelles

53.	Organisms contain thousands of different proteins composed of _______ amino acids.
	a.	4
	b.	20
	c.	100
	d.	1000
	e.	approx. 5000

54.	What determines the specific function of a protein?
	a.	Exact sequence of amino acids
	b.	Number of disulfide bonds
	c.	A hydrophilic "head" attached to a hydrophobic "tail"
	d.	Fatty acids as monomers
	e.	The number of peptide bonds it contains

55.	Specifically, a peptide bond forms between which groups?
	a.	Amino and aldehyde groups
	b.	Carboxyl and amino groups
	c.	Hydroxyl and carboxyl groups
	d.	Phosphate and hydroxyl groups
	e.	Carboxyl and aldehyde groups

56.	What maintains the secondary structure of a protein?
	a.	Peptide bonds
	b.	Disulfide bonds
	c.	Hydrogen bonds
	d.	Ionic bonds
	e.	All of these

     Essay 57. Explain why a protein that functions fine in the cytosol of a cell may not
function if placed in the cell membrane. 

     F/B 58. The linear arrangement of amino acids in the polypeptide chain is referred to
as the __________________ structure of the protein. 

59. In the final three-dimensional structure of a protein, _______________ amino acids are
more likely to be found in the interior of the molecule. 

60.	Complex three-dimensional tertiary structures of globular proteins are characterized by:
	a.	An absence of hydrophilic amino acids
	b.	A helical shape
	c.	A lack of cysteines in amino acid sequence
	d.	Disulfide bridges
	e.	Interactions among peptide chains

61.	Hemoglobin represents which level of protein organization?
	a.	Primary structure
	b.	Secondary structure
	c.	Tertiary structure
	d.	Quaternary structure
	e.	None of these; hemoglobin is a polysaccharide

62.	Which of these is an example of a protein?
	a.	Hemoglobin
	b.	Cellulose
	c.	Estrogen
	d.	ATP
	e.	All of these

63.	Do living organisms have more different types of proteins or nucleic acids? Why?

64.	Which type of molecule would be most abundant in a typical cell?
	a.	hydrocarbon
	b.	protein
	c.	water
	d.	lipid
	e.	carbohydrate

65.	The alpha helix secondary structure of proteins is stabilized by hydrogen bonds.

66.	Protein function is directly related to their primary structure of amino acids.

     M/C 67. Sequence information in DNA determines which of the following conformational
components of proteins? 
	a.	Primary
	b.	Secondary
	c.	Tertiary
	d.	a, b, and c
	e.	None of the above

68. What type of amino acid side chain would you expect to find on the surface of a protein
embedded in a cell membrane? 
	a.	Cysteine
	b.	Hydrophobic
	c.	Hydrophilic
	d.	Charged
	e.	Polar, but not charged

69.	The "backbone" of a nucleic acid molecule is made of
	a.	nitrogenous bases.
	b.	alternating sugar and phosphate groups.
	c.	purines.
	d.	pyrimidines.
	e.	nucleosides.

70.	DNA carries genetic information in its
	a.	helical form.
	b.	sequence of bases.
	c.	tertiary structure.
	d.	phosphate groups.
	e.	sugar groups.

71.	Where do covalent bonds form between two deoxyribose nucleotides?
	a.	Between a phosphate group and adenine
	b.	Between deoxyribose and a phosphate group
	c.	Between adenine and thymine
	d.	Between the phosphate groups of both
	e.	Between deoxyribose and a base

72.	Adenosine triphosphate is an example of a(n)
	a.	carbohydrate
	b.	protein
	c.	lipid
	d.	nucleic acid
	e.	inorganic molecule

73.	A nucleotide is
	a.	Phospholipid, sugar, base
	b.	Phosphate, protein, base
	c.	Phosphate, sugar, base
	d.	Phospholipid, sugar, protein
	e.	None of these

74.	Which of these is NOT a nucleic acid?
	a.	RNA
	b.	DNA
	c.	ATP
	d.	All of these ARE nucleic acids.

75.	Which nucleic acid functions as an energy carrier in the cell?

76. RNA differs from DNA in that it contains the sugar ribose and uses the nitrogen
containing base ________________. 

1.	Carbon skeleton and functional groups
2.	e
3.	4; covalent
4.	Organic
5.	Functional groups
6.	monomer
7.	False
8.	c
9.	c
10.	d
11.	e
12.	a
13.	a
14.	c

15.	dehydration; hydrolysis
16.	glycogen
17.	a
18.	e
19.	e
20.	No answer in TestBank
21.	a
22.	b
23.	c
     F/B 24. carbohydrates, lipids, proteins, and nucleic acids 25. Cows, like humans, also
lack the ability to breakdown the bonds between the glucose subunits of cellulose but they
do have special bacteria and fungi in their digestive tracts that break the cellulose down
for the cows.  26. Energy storage (e.g. glucose, starch, glycogen) and structural support
(e.g. cellulose and chitin) 
27.	c
28.	True
29.	b
30.	c
31.	a
32.	d
33.	c
34.	a
35.	d
36.	b
37.	a
38.	c
39.	d
40.	e
41.	b
42.	c
43.	polyunsaturated
44.	head; tail
45.	Lipids (fats) weigh less and store 3X as much energy as carbohydrates.
     F/B 46. Saturated fatty acids have only single C-C bonds whereas unsaturated have at
least one double C-C bond therefore the saturated fatty acids are more likely to be solid
at room temperature as the fatty acid chains can be more tightly packed together.  47. OH
groups in sugar molecules are polar and the hydrogen bonds between water molecules and the
polar hydroxal groups of the sugar keep the sugar dissolved in water.  48. No answer in
49.	d
50.	b
51.	a
52.	c
53.	b
54.	a
55.	b
56.	c
57.	No answer in TestBank
58.	primary
59.	hydrophobic
60.	d
61.	d
62.	a
     F/B 63. There are only two main types of nucleic acids (RNA or DNA) whereas there are
many different types of proteins (thousands). 

64.	c
65.	True
66.	False
67.	d
68.	b
69.	b
70.	b
71.	b
72.	d
73.	c
74.	d
75.	ATP
76.	uracil