Chapter 4 (Tobin & Duschek); Chapter 5 (Audesirk)


1. All cells possess all the following components except:

a. Cytoplasm

b. Genetic material

c. Nuclear membrane

d. Plasma cell membrane

e. Ribosomes

2. Based on your understanding of the composition of a cell membrane, what would it probably feel like to the touch?

a. Tough, like skin

b. Thin and hard, like a nutshell

c. Stretchy and soft, like a balloon

d. Pliable and soft, like jelly

e. Wet and without substance, like water

3. The cell is the basic unit of function and reproduction because

a. subcellular components cannot regenerate whole cells.

b. cells are totipotent.

c. single cells can sometimes produce an entire organism.

d. cells can only come from preexisting cells.

e. a cell can arise by the fusion of two cells.


4. What components do all cells possess?

5. Discuss the three main components of modern cell theory that evolved from Rudolf Virchow's ideas from the 1850's.

6. Describe the main functions of the plasma membrane.

7. Why are cells generally small in size?

8. Cells having a nucleus are referred to as ___________________ cells and those lacking a true nucleus are called _________________ cells.

9. Most of the cell's metabolic activities occur in the cell __________________.




10. What is the meaning of the term "prokaryotic"?

a. "False nucleus"

b. "Before the nucleus"

c. "True nucleus"

d. "Small nucleus"

e. "Before the cell"

11. Which does NOT agree with part of the cell theory?

a. Insects are composed of cells.

b. Paramecia come from Paramecia.

c. Bacteria are the smallest possible organisms.

d. Minerals are important for good health.

e. Spontaneous generation can not occur.


12. The DNA in a prokaryotic cell is contained in the _____________ region of the cytoplasm.

13. The __________________ may help some pathogenic bacteria evade their host's immune system and attach to host cells.


14. What is not characteristic of a prokaryotic cell?

a. A plasma membrane

b. A nuclear membrane

c. Ribosomes

d. Enzymes

e. DNA

15. What is not characteristic of a prokaryotic cell?

a. A plasma membrane

b. A nuclear membrane

c. Ribosomes

d. Enzymes

e. DNA

16. Prokaryotic as well as eukaryotic cells possess:

a. Mitochondria

b. Chloroplasts

c. A cytoskeleton

d. Ribosomes

e. A nucleus



17. Which is a difference between prokaryotes and eukaryotes?

a. Prokaryotes have RNA, eukaryotes have DNA

b. Prokaryotes have DNA, eukaryotes have RNA

c. Prokaryotes have a nucleus, eukaryotes have a nucleoid

d. Prokaryotes have a nucleoid, eukaryotes have a nucleus

e. Prokaryotes have a cell wall, eukaryotes do not


18. Compare/contrast plant and animal cell structure. Include at least two similarities and two dissimilarities.


19. The cytoplasm of eukaryotic cells contains:

a. Water

b. Dissolved nutrients

c. Organelles

d. Enzymes

e. All of these

20. The utilization of "food" in the mitochondria, with the associated formation of ATP, is termed

a. cellular respiration.

b. metabolic rate.

c. diffusion.

d. metabolic processing of fuels.

e. catabolism.

21. If you removed the pili from a bacterial cell, which of the following would you expect to happen?

a. The bacterium could no longer swim.

b. The bacterium could no longer adhere to other cells.

c. The bacterium could no longer regulate the movement of molecules into and out of the cell.

d. The bacterium would dry out.

e. The shape of the bacterium would change.

22. Of the objects listed, which is the smallest that you can see with the unaided eye?

a. DNA molecule

b. Human egg

c. Virus

d. Ribosomes

e. Human skin cell



23. What is the difference between "free" and "attached" ribosomes?

a. Free ribosomes are in the cytoplasm while attached ribosomes are anchored to the endoplasmic reticulum.

b. Free ribosomes produce proteins that remain in the cytosol while attached ribosomes produce proteins that may be exported from the cell.

c. Free ribosomes produce proteins that are exported from the cell while attached ribosomes make proteins for mitochondria and chloroplasts.

d. a and c.

e. a and b.

24. If all the lysosomes within a cell suddenly ruptured, what would be the most likely result?

a. The macromolecules in the cell cytosol would begin to degrade.

b. The number of proteins in the cytosol would begin to increase.

c. The DNA within the mitochondria would begin to degrade.

d. The mitochondria and chloroplasts would begin to divide.

e. There would be no change in the normal function of the cell.

25. What is the function of a plant cell vacuole?

a. Storage of wastes

b. Support of the cell

c. Excretion of wastes

d. a and b

e. b and c

26. A nucleolus is:

a. An extra nucleus in the cell

b. A dark area in the nucleus where ribosomes are made

c. An area where the nucleus is synthesized

d. A membrane-bound organelle

e. The area in a prokaryote where DNA is concentrated

27. The nuclei of eukaryotic cells are characterized by:

a. A single-layered membrane

b. One or more nucleoids

c. One or more nucleoli

d. A non-porous membrane

e. All of these


28. If you identified a cell with large amounts of rough ER, which would not be a logical conclusion about that cell?

a. Large quantities of enzymes for biochemical processes are manufactured by that cell.

b. Quantities of nuclear membrane are produced by that cell.

c. Proteins for export are manufactured by that cell.

d. Membrane lipids are produced by that cell.

e. Large amounts of proteinaceous hormone are exported by the cell.

29. Cells that primarily produce steroid hormones, such as testosterone and estrogen, for export have large quantities of:

a. Cytoplasmic ribosomes

b. Smooth endoplasmic reticulum

c. Plasma membranes

d. Hydrolytic enzymes

e. DNA

30. Ribosomes are the site of synthesis of:

a. DNA

b. RNA

c. Proteins

d. Nucleoli

e. Glucose

31. An organelle capable of synthesis of nuclear membrane is the:

a. Endoplasmic reticulum (ER)

b. Nucleus itself

c. Golgi complex

d. Mitochondrion

e. Chloroplast

32. Which of the following is associated with rough ER?

a. Chlorophyll

b. Ribosomes

c. Lipid synthesis

d. Plasma membrane

e. DNA

33. Endoplasmic reticulum is the site of synthesis of:

a. Lipids

b. Testosterone

c. More ER

d. Choices a and b are correct

e. Choices a, b, and c are correct


34. The golgi packages materials into _________ for transport or export.

a. organelles

b. plastids

c. vesicles

d. microns

e. nucleoli

35. Which cellular component packages hydrolytic enzymes and forms lysosomes?

a. Golgi complex

b. Smooth ER

c. Mitochondrion

d. Cytoskeleton

e. Rough ER


36. The ________________ extracts energy from food molecules, while the ______________ captures solar energy.

37. The ________________ has the ability to digest organelles once they become defective or malfunctioning.


38. Briefly describe the interrelationship of structure and function among the rough ER, smooth ER, and golgi.


39. Of the following cell components which is composed primarily of protein?

a. Plasma membrane

b. Cytoskeleton

c. DNA

d. Cytosol

e. Mitochondria

40. Which of the following is/are evidence that mitochondria were once free-living organisms?

a. They produce ATP

b. They contain their own DNA

c. They are found in all eukaryotic cells

d. a and b

e. a, b, and c

41. In comparison of similarities between mitochondria and chloroplasts, which of the following is not a similarity?

a. Both are capable to ATP synthesis.

b. Both capture the energy of sunlight to meet metabolic demands.

c. Both possess their own DNA.

d. Both are surrounded by a double membrane.

e. Both may have originally been independent organisms.

42. Which of the following does not possess a double membrane?

a. Mitochondrion

b. Nuclear envelope

c. Ribosome

d. Plastid

e. Chloroplast

43. Which pair of organelles is responsible for energy supply to eukaryotic cells?

a. Ribosomes and mitochondria

b. Chloroplasts and ribosomes

c. Golgi bodies and ribosomes

d. Mitochondria and lysosomes

e. Chloroplasts and mitochondria

44. Aerobic metabolism occurs in the:

a. Ribosome

b. Chloroplast

c. Mitochondrion

d. Cytosol

e. Nucleus

45. In metabolically active cells, you would expect to find a large number of:

a. Golgi bodies

b. Chloroplasts

c. Vesicles

d. Microtubules

e. Mitochondria

46. Which organelle does one expect to be most abundant in human skeletal muscle cells?

a. Mitochondria

b. Lysosomes

c. Golgi complexes

d. Smooth ER

e. Plastids


47. How does a cell rid itself of defective or malfunctioning organelles?

a. They are engulfed by plastids and stored until export from cell is possible.

b. Defective parts accumulate until the cell itself dies.

c. Lysosomes assist in the removal of defective organelles by digesting them.

d. Ribosomes play a significant role in the removal of malfunctioning parts by absorbing the parts.

e. They are exported by exocytosis.

48. Which statement most accurately describes the interaction between ER, ribosomes and Golgi bodies in the export of protein from the cell?

a. Golgi bodies manufacture proteins which travel through the ER to be packaged by the ribosomes for export.

b. ER manufactures proteins which are carried by ribosomes to the Golgi bodies for export.

c. ER manufactures proteins which are carried by Golgi bodies to the ribosomes for export.

d. Ribosomes manufacture proteins which travel through the ER to be packaged by the Golgi bodies for export.

e. Ribosomes make proteins that travel through the Golgi bodies to the ER which exports them.

49. What "buds off" of the Golgi complex?

a. Nuclei

b. Cytoskeleton

c. Ribosomes

d. New cells

e. Vesicles

50. An organelle associated with carbohydrate synthesis is the:

a. Golgi complex

b. Ribosome

c. Centriole

d. Nucleolus

e. Nucleus

51. Which organelle extracts energy from food molecules and stores it in the high-energy bonds of ATP?

a. Mitochondrion

b. Chloroplast

c. Ribosome

d. Centriole

e. ER


52. A cell adapted for waste storage and disposal would probably contain a large number of:

a. Mitochondria

b. Vacuoles

c. ER

d. Nuclei

e. Ribosomes

53. The cytoskeleton is to the cell what...

a. bones are to humans

b. a frame is to a house

c. a desk is to an office

d. a and b

e. all of these

54. What primarily determines the shape of cells that lack cell walls?

a. Nucleus

b. Cytosol

c. Endoplasmic reticulum

d. Cytoskeleton

e. Ribosomes

55. All the following are important functions of the cytoskeleton except:

a. Storage of food molecules

b. Support of organelles

c. Movement of organelles

d. Maintenance of shape

e. Maintenance of organization in the cell

56. Fibers of the cytoskeleton are composed primarily of:

a. Nucleic acids

b. Polysaccharides

c. Lipids

d. ER

e. Proteins


57. Briefly describe the similarities and differences between cilia and flagella. Give an example of an organism that is ciliated and one that is flagellated. Where do you find ciliated and flagellated cells in humans?



58. Where in the unicellular organism Euglena would you expect to find the greatest concentration of mitochondria?

a. Site of lysosome production

b. Near the nuclear membrane

c. Area surrounding basal bodies

d. Within the chloroplasts

e. Near the ribosomes

59. Which of the following molecules would be found in an animal cell, but not in a bacterial cell?

a. DNA

b. Cell Wall

c. Plasma Membrane

d. Ribosomes

e. Endoplasmic Recticulum

60. A cell has the following molecules and structures: enzymes, DNA, ribosomes, plasma membrane, and mitochondria. It could be a cell from:

a. a bacterium

b. an animal, but not a plant

c. a plant, but not a animal

d. a plant or animal

e. any kind of organism

61. Which of the following is capable of converting light energy to chemical energy?

a. Chloroplasts

b. Mitochondria

c. Amyloplasts

d. Vacuoles

e. Golgi bodies

62. A biologist ground up some plant cells and then centrifuged the mixture. She obtained some organelles from the pellet in the test tube that took up CO2 and gave off O2. The organelles are most likely

a. Nuclei

b. Ribosomes

c. Chloroplasts

d. Mitochondria

e. Golgi bodies


63. Which of the following relationships between cell structures and their respective functions is NOT correct?

a. cell wall¾ support and protection

b. chloroplasts¾ chief site of cellular respiration

c. nucleus¾ site of genetic control of information

d. ribosomes¾ site of protein synthesis

e. mitochondria¾ formation of ATP for the cell

64. Which of the following is NOT a known function of the cytoskeleton?

a. to maintain a critical limit on cell size

b. to provide mechanical support to the cell

c. to maintain a characteristic shape of the cell

d. to hold mitochondria and other organelles in place

e. to assist in cell motility


Matching¾ Select the organelle that is the most appropriate batch for the numbered statement. Letters may be used once, more than once or not at all.

a. Mitochondria

b. Golgi bodies

c. Rough Endoplasmic reticulum

d. Lysosomes

e. Smooth endoplasmic reticulum

65. Digests damaged organelles.

66. Sorts our mixtures of protein and sends them to their proper destination.

67. Site of protein synthesis.

68. Site of cellular respiration.

69. Makes steroid hormones.

70. Responsible for most of a muscle cell's ATP generation.

71. Briefly describe what distinguishes a eukaryotic cell from a prokaryotic cell.


72. A protein molecule is to be exported from the cell. Describe the pathway that the protein takes from the point of synthesis to export.


73. Write a short essay describing the similarities and differences between a plant cell and an animal cell.


74. A cell that contains large numbers of ribosomes, would produce a large number of __________ molecules.

75. The _______________ is an organelle, which serves as a sort of "postal depot" where some of the proteins synthesized on ribosomes and rough ER are processed.

76. RNA carries information for protein synthesis from the DNA in the nucleus to the ribosomes in the cytoplasm. To get from the nucleus to the cytoplasm, RNA must pass through _______________.

77. In plant cells, glucose is produced by photosynthesis in the __________ (organelle) and converted to usable energy in the form of ATP in the __________ (organelle).

78. Although both extensions from the cytoplasm serve to move the cell or move fluid past the cell, the __________ are often short and numerous, while the _________ are longer and few in number.

79. Describe the difference between the nucleolus, nucleus and nucleoid regions in cells?

80. When a cell grows in size it must produce more plasma membrane material. How does the cell do this?

81. How is the vacuole involved in plant growth?

82. A shrinking machine has been invented that will allow you, as a cell biologist, to actually explore the inside of an animal and a plant cells. On your journey, describe some of the structures that you observe and discuss their use in the cell. W hat are the similarities and differences you observe in the two different cell types.

83. Why is the cytoskeleton such an important structural component of cells?





(c) 2002 by Prentice-Hall, Inc. All rights reserved.



1. c

2. d

3. a


4. DNA (at some point in their life cycle), a cell membrane, and cytoplasm

5. All living organisms are composed of one or more cells, the cell is the smallest functional unit of life and all cells come from preexisting cells.

6. The main functions of the plasma membrane are to isolate cell internal environment from external environment; regulate the flow of materials into and out of the cell; and, allow interaction with other cells.

7. To maintain sufficient surface area for the exchange of nutrients and wastes with the external environment.

8. eukaryotic; prokaryotic

9. cytoplasm


10. b

11. d


12. nucleoid

13. capsule or slime layers


14. b

15. b

16. d

17. d


18. No answer in TestBank


19. e

20. a

21. b

22. b

23. e

24. a

25. d

26. b

27. c

28. d

29. b

30. c

31. a

32. b

33. e

34. c

35. a



36. mitochondria; chloroplast

37. lysosome


38. No answer in TestBank


39. b

40. d

41. b

42. c

43. e

44. c

45. e

46. a

47. c

48. d

49. e

50. a

51. a

52. b

53. d

54. d

55. a

56. e


57. No answer in TestBank


58. c

59. e

60. d

61. a

62. c

63. b

64. a


65. d

66. b

67. c

68. a

69. e

70. a

71. Eukaryotic cells store genetic information in a nucleus, which is not present in a prokaryotic cell. Prokaryotic cells are generally small, with a simple internal structure (lacking organelles), where as the eukaryotic cell is generally larger a nd contains many internal organelles within the cytoplasm.


72. A protein to be exported will be synthesized on the rough endoplasmic reticulum. From there it will travel via transport vesicle to the Golgi apparatus for processing. From the Golgi it will travel, again via vesicle, to the plasma membrane for release outside the cell.

73. The student should mention some of the following characteristics: plant cells have chloroplasts, cell wall, central vacuole; animal cells have lysosomes; both types of cell have rough and smooth ER, nucleus, ribosomes, mitochondria, etc.


74. protein

75. Golgi apparatus

76. nuclear pores

77. chloroplast; mitochondria

78. cilia; flagella

79. Nucleus contains the DNA in eukaryotes and the nucleolus region in the nucleus is the site of ribosome synthesis while the nucleoid region is the site in prokaryotic cells where the DNA is contained in the cytoplasm.

80. ER vesicle to the Golgi apparatus vesicle to fuse with the plasma membrane.

81. The vacuole allows for the build up of turgor pressure in the plant cells that prevents wilting.

82. Student should discuss the major organelles in a eukaryotic cell and should differentiate those organelles found only in animal or plant cells.

83. The cytoskeleton maintains cell shape, facilitates cell and organelle movement and is involved in cell division.