1. How are the advertisers trying to influence you to buy these two products?
2. Advertisements are one common form of persuasion. However, most
know of or take the time to examine the forms of persuasion that are commonly used in
advertisements. Watch three different commercials and note the forms of persuasion by
using this form.
3. Sometimes we think hard about a message, especially when it is
to us, but sometimes we
we think very little about a message. Both ways have been shown to affect persuasion. The Dual
Process Models of Persuasion incorporate both ways the attitude change process can occur. The
two dual process models of persuasion are: the Elaboration Likelihood Model and the
Heuristic-Systematic Model. The two models differ little, but they have a lot in common as you
4. As you can imagine, the source of the persuasive communication
the message itself are
important factors in the persuasion process. But, the successful persuader will always take
into account of the audience in order to increase the success of his or her persuasive message.
One "audience" characteristic that affects the success of persuasive messages is the need for
cognition. The need for cognition is a personality variable that discriminates the "audience"
on the basis of how much they enjoy thinking. Cacioppo and Petty (1982) developed a
Need for Cognition Scale that measures how much people enjoy engaging in effortful cognitive
activities. Items 3, 4, 5, 7, 8, 9, 12, 16, and 17 are reverse scored so that higher scores
indicate greater enjoyment of engaging in effortful cognitive activities. Research has demonstrated
that people who are high in the need for cognition are more persuaded by the central route to
persuasion; whereas, people low in the need for cognition are more presuaded by the peripheral
route to persuasion.
5. You may be thinking that the attitude one has toward a
etc. is a strong
predictor of how that person will react to that product/service/person etc. For a period of time
in social psychology, the link between attitudes and behavior was quite poor. For example,
Warner and DeFleur (1969) found that when White students were asked to go on a date with a
Black student most agreed to the request. However, two weeks later their attitudes toward
dating a Black student were assessed again and those students who believed their commitment to
the date would be made public refused to go on the date. Many studies during this period found
that a very weak relationship between the attitude a person held toward performing a behavior
and actually performing it.
One notable exception to this pattern was the
strong relationship between a person's
attitude toward a candidate and their actual vote. Schuman and Johnson (1976) found that a
person's attitude toward a candidate predicted very well whether they actually voted for that
candidate. What are some of the possible reasons for the strong attitude-behavior relationship
and voting behavior?